It is often seen in everyday life, but it is the invisible killer of integrated circuits.
In August 24, 1998, Professor Ying Yi successfully implanted the chip into his arm. Speaking of chips, we all know that chips contain integrated circuits, so what are integrated circuits afraid of?
The air in winter is cold and dry, and brings a mischievous friend, static electricity. When you take off your clothes and go to bed at night, you can often hear “crackle” and flash. When you want to shake hands with a friend, the fingertip touches the other side, it will “discharge”, the door handle, the tap will be “electric shock”, these are the role of static electricity.
In life, static electricity is mainly two different substances after contact, friction, separation, from the original neutrality, into a charged body, one substance with a positive charge, the other will have the same size of negative charge, because the dry air conductivity is very weak, the charge is difficult to be released, when the charged people try to go When you touch a conductor, the charge redistributes on the surface of the conductor, creating a powerful electric field on the surface and fingertips of the conductor. The electric charge of the human body flows into the conductor through the fingertips and air in an instant. When the air is broken down, an electric spark and shock wave are produced, which is the flash we see and the crackling sound we hear.
We may not realize that people walking through the carpet of chemical fibers may produce about 35_000 volts of static electricity, about 7,000 volts when they look through the plastic instructions, and they may feel numb and sore when they discharge electrostatically. For electronic components in integrated circuits, such high voltage may cause fatal harm. Electrostatic discharge (ESD) processes occur rapidly at very high intensity, usually producing enough heat to melt the internal circuit of a semiconductor chip or break down the insulation layer, even if it is electrostatically applied once, the whole integrated circuit may be permanently scrapped. Any manufacturer is faced with the threat of static electricity. In the global electronics manufacturing industry, the loss caused by electrostatic discharge is up to billions of dollars each year. It can be said that static electricity is the “invisible killer” of integrated circuits.
In order to solve this problem, in the manufacturing, testing, handling, assembly, production and use stages of integrated circuit devices, people will adopt a variety of ways to strictly protect electronic components. For example, all workers entering the static electricity protection area must be grounded to prevent the accumulation of charges; in the manufacturing workshop, the operators wear anti-static clothing, anti-static footwear, wear grounded anti-static wristband; the ground in the workplace is conductive, or lay conductive pads; maintain ambient air humidity. In addition, the most effective way to neutralize electrostatic charges is to use an ion generator, which blows ionized air out of the working area and neutralizes charges accumulated on insulating materials; during assembly, PCB packages are also packaged with special shielding bags. For example, some of the electronic components we see are wrapped in a gray translucent plastic package, which contains conductive materials that shield the current effectively and protect the electronic components from being affected. Not only that, the designer also manufactures the electrostatic protection circuit in the integrated circuit chip, provides the electrostatic current discharge path, thus avoids the electrostatic breakdown of the internal circuit.
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